Flight from London to Oxford and the royal court
The Solemn League and Covenant will bring a Scottish army to Parliament – and an ocean of trouble
In July 1643 all looked set fair for the royalist cause after a string of victories
Prof Oakes talks to me about Margaret Cavendish – poet, natural philosopher, duchess and 17th century celebrity
July 1643 would see two critical contests at Bath and in Yorkshire. And the death of The Patriot
Early 1643 was not a good idea for peace. By April, both the Scots and English parliament had tired of Charles’ negotiating style and started talking to each otherRead More
The deaths of Bedfod and Strafford started the countdown to a violent to the issues at stake
Despite multiplying armies, the search for peace goes on
The King and people of London face off at Turnham Green
Charles’ situation in August looked dire. But at Shrewsbury, soldiers came to his call, arms reached him from Henrietta Maria, and in October he had an army, and set ofRead More
How people made choices for king or parliament, and whether they cared
Both sides lay out their stalls. And Henry Parker lays out some underlying foundations of English political thought
Six days in January 1642 which changed the course of English history
A revolt and massacres in Ireland, and the struggle over the Grand Remonstrance.
The Royal fightback begins. A party to control parliament for the king
In a time of national danger and an explosion of print and debate, the Protestation Oath of 1641 was a remarkable act of nation building
Charles looks for friends in Scotland
Will Charles be willing to pay the price to restore his authority?
The dramatic story of the trial and judgement of the Earl of Strafford
Charles’ response to the Scottish Declaration was severe; but it also caused a division in the Junto, and among MPs. Meanwhile, as poublic religious debate exploded, divisions also grew betweenRead More
After hard negotiation, by February 1641 a workable compromise was in sight
A new settlement would be formed between King, parliament and people
Strafford would have no backing down. Bring the rebels to heel!
At last, the 11 year wait is over. Parliament is back.
‘I expect not anything can reduce that people to obedience but force only’ Charles wrote in 1638. The following year that would be put to the test. in the First Bishops War (Bishops not included).
Charles was determined to bring Scottish and English churches into harmony. There’ll be trouble.
11 years of peace, prosperity – and tyranny?
In 1633 Thomas Wentworth arrived in Ireland – and despite great administrative efficiency, managed to separately outrage each of the components of Irish Society Meanwhile in London, William Prynne and John Lillburne stood form against tyranny.
With Parliament banished, there was little restraint on Laud and Charles to implement the reforms they felt were needed to improve the quality of religious observations and the spiritual wealth of all English. Not everyone would approve their efforts.
In 1637 Charles sought an example to squash opposition to Ship Money, and chose a minor country squire. John Hampden refused to back down.
Charles had done the right thing of we wanted to avoid parliaments – reducing costs by making peace. But, how was he to raise money to clear that £2m debt? Well, two words came in to play – many, and various.
Relationships with the other kingdoms was definitely the royal preserve. But policy options might vary, from favouring the desires of his protestant subjects, to the Spanish faction on the privy Council. But his clout was always hampered by the poor state of the Royal Navy
Charles was determined to run his court completely differently to his father. Controlled, regulated, ordered; an example of a warm, loving and enlightened household that would prove an example of the majesty and stability of his reign.
Was it an ‘Eleven years tyranny’ or ‘Halcyon Days’ that followed 1629? Either way, foreign ambassadors were not hopeful of England’s future. But Charles first priority was to reduce the Vipers of parliament to submission.
New wine? Or old wine in new bottles?
Dramatic events in 1628 – a horrible murder, and one of the great set pieces of the English Revolution. Mayhem! Treason! Murder!
As so often, war demands money, and in England, money meant parliament. So the outcome of ‘The Favourites’ War’, Buckingham’s attempt to relieve La Rochelle in 1627, would be critical.
The battle of Lutter in 1626 convinced Charles of the tearing need to intervene in the Thirty Years War in defence of hos sister Elizabeth’s rights and in the cause of Protestantism. But the cupboard was bare – how to raise money? Without calling that pesky parliament!
The 1626 parliament was opened by William Laud – not a good sign for the resolutely Calvinist parliament. Despite a remarkably positive response to the call for subsidies – their linkage to resolutions of grievances did not go down well with Charles
As the 1626 parliament opens, full of hope once more, we take a while to introduce William Laud, and discuss the idea that a theme of the English civil wars is an ideological struggle between lawyers and Arminian clerics
The reconvened parliament in Oxford went poor, and after a month Charles closed it down, and concentrated instead on the Spanish war. Surely, the recapturing the glory of Drake & Hawkins would relight Parliament’s fire for war!
For Charles I, April to June 1625 was his like the honeymoon period given to new football managers – enthusiastic full of hope – and depressingly brief. The honeymoon period with his newly arrived wife Henrietta Maria, was similarly brief.
In March 1625 Charles came into his inheritance on the death of his father. Was it a poison chalice or the holy grail? What sort of man accepted the chalice and duty and would place his hands on the tillers of the Three Kingdoms?
Cromwell was a 1970 film starring Richard Harris as the eponymous, and Alec Guiness as Charles I. Massive in scale and ambition, in its attempt to present Oliver as a democratic hero of the people. Does it manage it?
Well this is exciting! The English Revolution. A title which is controversial, and a historiography which is bigger than the eponymous crocodile.