British Revolutionary Biographies

Here is a brief list of names of the revolutionary period – which I would like to call a gazetteer but cannot. Do not shout at me – it is a work of progress and will be updated!

Here is access to a dynamic Google sheets version

To download the pdf version you can do so here:British Revolutionary Biographies 09-09-22


Known As… Surname Christian name Titles Birth Death Brief Bio Political Affiliation Religious Affiliation Social Status Kingdom
Baillie Robert 1602 1662 As a minister submitted unwillingly to Charles reforms
Become propogandist for Covenanter cause
From 1640 commissioner in London & Westminster Assembly
Resolutioner in 1648
Moderate Covenanter Covenanter Merchant
Argyll Campbell Archibald Lord Lorne
Earl of Argyll (1638)
Marquess of Argyll (1641)
1607 1661 Head of Clan Cambell
Initially a Privy Councillor for the king
By 1638 moved to the Covenanters, and by 1640 became the effective leader of the Radical Covenanters
Anti Engager, Whiggamore & supported Commonwealth in 1650s
Radical Covenanter Covenanter Peer Scotland
Loudon Campbell John Earl of Loudon 1598 1662 Early opponent of Charles I in 1637 and organiser of ‘Supplicants’ and of the ‘Tables’
Frequently part of commissions to English parliament
At battles Dunbar and Worcester, part of Glencairn’s highland revolt, submitted to Moncke 1653
Covenanter Covenanter Peer Scotland
Glencairn Cunningham William Earl of Glencairn 1610 1664 Chief of clan Cunningham
Privy Councillor from 1641
Led 1653-4 uprising against Cromwell
Royalist Protestant Episcopalian Peer Scotland
Elphinstone William Lord Balmerino (1613) 1649 Voted against the 5 Articles of Perth
Led a petition against Charles I religious refprms, celebrated trial in 1634
Author of National Covenant, commissioner to the English and Charles I
Anti Engager
Radical Covenanter Covenanter Peer Scotland
Montrose Graham James Earl of Montrose (1626)
Marquess of Montrose (1644)
Lord Lieutenant of Scotland (1644)
1612 1650 Became a Covenanter in 1638
By 1641 had moved to support the king
‘Year of Victories’ with MacColla 1644-5
Exiled 1646, returned & executed 1650
Royalist Covenanter Peer Scotland
Hamilton Hamilton James Lord Arran
Marquess of Hamilton (1625)
Duke of Hamilton (1643)
1606 1649 Advisor to Charles I from 1628 in England
Charles I’s chief minister in Scotland from 1638
Imprison by Charles, but restored to lead the Engagement from 1647, defeated at Preston
Royalist Protestant Episcopalian Peer Scotland
Lanark Hamilton William Earl of Lanark (1639)
Duke of Hamilton (1649)
1616 1651 Brother to the 1st Duke of Hamilton
Established at Charles’ court & English MP
Moderate Covenanter 1643-6
Agreed Engagement at Carisbroke with Charles
Fled to Holland 1648, died at battle of Worcester
Royalist Covenanter Peer Scotland
Known As… Surname Christian name Titles Birth Death Brief Bio Political Affiliation Religious Affiliation Social Status Kingdom
Henderson Alexander 1583 1646 Co-author of the National Covenanter
Correspondant with English parliament and Westminster Assembly; & treaty of Uxbridge with the king
Covenanter Covenanter Yeoman Scotland
Jonston Archibald Lord Wariston 1611 1633 Co-author of the National Covenant
Member of Westminster Assembly
Remonstrant & supporter of the Commonwealth
Covenanter Covenanter Merchant
Leven Leslie Alexander Earl of Leven (1641) 1580 1661 Fought in the Thirty Years War 1605-1637
1639 chose the Covenanter cause
Commanded Covenanter army 1644-1647
Captured 1651
Covenanter Covenanter Laird Scotland
Leslie David Earl of Newark (1661) 1600 1682 Employed ib Swedish service in 30 Year War 1630 -1640
Returned to Covenanter army & led army in England; Anti Engager in 1647
Defeated by Cromwell at Dunbar 1650
Covenanter Covenanter Laird/Peer Scotland
MacColla MacColla Alasdair ‘Destroyer of houses’ 1610 1647 Born on Colonsay, into the Clan MacDonald.
Fought in Ireland in the 1641 revolt for Randal MacDonnell, Earl of Antrim; involved in Portna Massacre
Reputed inventer of Highland Charge
Fought with Montrose in the Highlands 1643-6
Killed in Ireland at Knocknanuss 1647
Royalist Catholic Clansman Scotland
Munro Munro George 1602 1693 Fought in 30 Years war
Scotting commaner in Ireland defeated at Benburb 1646
Resisted Cromwell, took part in Glencairn uprising
Served under Charles II
Covenanter Laird Scotland
Traquair Stewart John Baron Stewart (1628)
Earl of Traquair (1633)
Lord High Treasurer (1636-1641)
1599 1659 Became a prominent politician by 1620s
Leading king’s representative in 1639, declared enemy to religion in 1644
Engager, captured by English in 1648
Royalist Protestant Episcopalian Peer Scotland
Known As… Surname Christian name Titles Birth Death Brief Bio Political Affiliation Religious Affiliation Social Status Kingdom Irish Grouping
Ormonde Butler James Viscount Thurles (1619)
Earl of Ormond (1633)
Marquess of Ormonde (1642)
Duke of Ormonde (1682)
1610 1688 Born (and died) in England
Friend of Buckingham, fought at La Rochelle
Supported Wentworth as Lord Lieutenant
Irish royal army Commander Vs Rebellion
Made Lord Lieutenant in 1642
Defeated at Rathmines 1649
Exile in France 1649-1660
Re-instated as Lord Lieutenant in 1662
Royalist Anglican Peer Ireland Old English
Antrim MacDonnell Randal 2nd Earl of Antrim (1636) 1609 1683 Benefited from the Ulster Plantations
Feud with Cambells in Scotland; suggested plans to support king Vs Covenanters
Ket his head down during 1642 Rebellion
Feudal overlord to MacColla; sent men to Highlands in 1644
Served Cromwell; pardoned at Restoration
Royalist Catholic Peer Ireland Gaelic Irish
O’Neill Phelim 1604 1653 Studied law in England
One of the origimal 1641 plotters
Fought under Owen Roe O’Neill
Defeated in 1650; went into hiding
Executed under Cromwell in 1653
Confederate Royalist Catholic Gentry Ireland Gaelic Irish
Preston Thomas Viscount Tara (1650) 1585 1655 Fought for Spanish in the 30 Year’s War
Returned to Ireland after 1641 revolt, fought as commander for Confederates
Defeated at Duggan’s Hill, 1647
Fled Ireland 1652
Confederate Royalist Catholic Gentry Ireland Old English
O’Neill Owen Roe 1585 1649 Fought for Spain Vs Dutch and in 30 Year’s War
Returned after 1641 revolt, commanded Cinfederate forces in Ulster
Reformation Catholic, supported Papal Nuncio Rinuccini
Defeated Munro at Benburb 1646
Confederate Catholic Clansman Ireland Gaelic Irish
Known As… Surname Christian name Titles Birth Death Brief Bio Political Affiliation Religious Affiliation Social Status Kingdom
Dorchester Carleton Dudley Baron 1626
Viscount Dorchester 1628
1573 1632 MP from 1604; supporter of the royalist line though to 1632; Diplomat in Venice and Dutch Republic in 1610s and 1620s
Privy Council and Principal Secretary of State in 1628 supported personal rule, and Buckingham. Charles said of him ‘ever brought me my own sense in my own words’.
Royalist Puritan Knight England & Wales
Cooke John Knight 1624 1563 1644 Competent and Successful Naval administrator
MP from 1621
Secretary of State 1625-1640, then retired
Supporter of Royal policies and Buckingham
Royalist Episcopalian Protestant Knight England & Wales
Cottingham Francis Baronet 1623
Baron 1631
1579 1652 Charles I secretary as PoW; clashed with Buckingham; Pro-Spanish. 1629 C of Exchequer
King’s Treasurer in the CW, exile 1646. Clarendon described him as a good-humoured and entertaining schemer—‘he left behind a greater esteem of his parts than love of his person’
Royalist Crypto Catholic Baronet England & Wales
Culpepper John Baron Culpepper 1644 1600 1660 MP in Short Parliament; spoke Vs Monopolies & supporrted Strafford impeachment.
Supported episcopy, drove him to king’s side by 1642; Chancellor of Exchequer & Privy Council; Master of the Rolls 1643
Wanted king to ally with Scots
Abroad from 1645; fell out with Rupert
Royalist Protestant
Knight England & Wales
Essex Devereux Robert Earl of Essex 1591 1646 Orphaned, married Frances Howard agred 15, humiliated by her affair with Carr and divorce of 1613.
Served in the Rhineland for protestants armies 1619-1624; part of Cadiz expedition 1625
Attended parliaments 1621-9, pursued Buckingham, supported Petition of Right 1628
A supporter of Pym in 1641; Captain General of Parliamentary armies 1642-1644
Leader of English presbyterian faction in parliament, supporting accomodation with Scots
Parliament Puritan, Presbyterian Peer
Digby John Earl of Bristol 1580 1653 Ambassador to Spain 1610-1618, and 1622-4 during Charles & Buckingham’s pursuit of the Spanish Match. Fell out with Buckinghman, imprisoned on return to England
Digby fought his improsonment; Charles drew back from Star Chamber Prosecution for fear of what woud emerge against Buckingham. Forced to re-nstate Digby to House of Lords
Digby tried to broker compromise over petition of right
South to dissaude Charles from Bishops Wars, but supported royal cause
Banished by parliament 1646, died in France 1653
Royalist Episcopalian Protestant Peer
Eliot John 1592 1632 Educated at Oxford & Inns of Court
MP from 1614, eloquent orator; Anti Spanish, for enfocement of penal Cathoic laws; 1626 Leader of the Popular Party in Parliament; from client to enemy of Buckingham
Refused to pay forced loan led Petition of Right with Edward Coke; held Speaker in his Chair 1629; arrested, refused to recant, died in prison
Parliament Puritan Knight England & Wales
Saye & Sele Fiennes William Viscount Saye & Sele 1624 1582 1662 A leader of opposition to the court from 1626, fefusing Forced Loan, supported Petition of Right in HoL.
Colonial ventures in Americas & Providence Is
Leading puritan worked with Pym to oppose Charles I in 1630s and 1640s
Refused oath to fight for king in 1639, Formed regiment in wars; supported army in parliament, but opposed to king’s execution & retired from public life
Parliament Puritan Peer
Carlisle Hay Lucy Countess of Carlisle 1622 1599 1660 Daughter of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland
Married Scottish earl James Hay 1617
Courtier allied with Buckingham til 1625, built relationship with Queen from 1627
Established influential salon for courtiers that allowed to be be an influential political player
Lands in Ireland & allied with Wentworth 1630s
1641 cultivated links with Pym, & then earls of Holland and Essex and Denzil Holles
Imprisoned 1650-2
Parliament Episcopalian Protestant Peer England & Wales
Pembroke Herbert William Earl of Pembroke 1580 1630 Anti Spanish faction on Privy Council. Chamberlain 1615-1625. Patriotic faction under James I, early patron of Buckingham with whom subsequently was a rival; Anti Spanish faction on Privy Council Royalist Puritan Peer England & Wales
Holles Denzil Baron 1616
Earl 1624
1598 1680 MP from 1624; held Speaker in Chair in 1629 in support of John Eliot
Reluctant to go to war in 1643; One of the Five Members Vcharles tried to arrest
minated Derby House Committee from 1647 (successor to committee of Two Kingdoms)
One of Eleven members exciled, and then exiled again by Pride’s Purge 1648
Returned 1654 under amnesty from Cromwell
Parliament Presbyterian Peer England & Wales
Clarendon Hyde Edward Earl of Clarendon 1661 1609 1674 MP from 1640, initially supported Popular Party; Lead King’s party from 1641m despite objectung arrest of 5 knights. King’s PC & Chancellor from 1643; King’s chief negotiator; exile in 1645; Chief Minister of Charles II (1652-60); impeached 1667. Wrote History of the Great Rebellion Constitutional Royalist Protestant
Gentleman England & Wales
Jermyn Henry Baron Jermyn 1643
Earl of St Albans 1660
1605 1684 Influential Courtier to Charlers, fierce royalist
MP in 1620s parliaments
Involved in Army Plot 1641; fled to France
Governor of Jersey; Secretary to the Queen;
tried to persuade Charles to ally with Scots
Royalist Protestant Knight England & Wales
Laud William Bishop of St David’s 1621
Dean of Chapel Royal & Bishop of Bath & Wells 1626
Bishop of London 1628
Archbishop of Canterbury 1633
1573 1645 Close friend of Buckingham
Unusually strong belief in divinity of Bishop’s authority, suspicion & fear of influnce of puritans. Supported more ceremonial obersvance such as positioning of church altar; enforced trough courts, prosecution of Pyrnne
Urged vigorous implementation of BCP in Scotland,  supported rights of the crown
Impeached 1640; executed 1645
Royalist Protestant
Cleric England & Wales
Pym John 1584 1643 Credited as the first person to acquire a national reputation through his career in parliament (Russell).  Born into an old familyfrom Somerset, minor gentry. Oxford and Middle Temple education, established in Hampshire through 1620s. POuritan and virulent anti Catholic.
Not a natural orator, but carried weight through his utter conviction, integrity, and clever parliamentary manager.
Arrested by James after 1621 parliament; organised opposition to Arminians, Forced Loan, pursued Buckingham
Leader of the opposition in 1640&, worked with the Scots to organise Solemn League.
Parliament Presbyterian Gentleman
Holland Rich Henry Earl of Holland 1590 1649 Younger brother of Earl of Warwick; close friend to Charles and Buckingham, player at French court!
Refusal to attend King at York 1642 showed lack of trust in Charles; may have been negotiating with Covenanters
Defected to King from Parliament, May 1643
Rpoyalist in 2nd CW, captured July 1648; executed 1649
Constitutional Royalist Puritan Peer England & Wales
Warwick Rich Robert Earl of Warwick 1587 1658 Member of Virginia, Providence Island and New England companies
MP 1604,1611, 1614; power base in Essex; resisted Forest laws, forced loan, ship mone. Consistent promoter of puritan cause.
Associated with John Pym from 1640, one of 12 petitioners, led oppotion to Strafford in Lords
Army & Naval leader during wars for parliament.
Intimately connected with Cromwell as Lord Protector
Parliament Puritan Peer England & Wales
Dorset Sackville Edward Earl of Dorset 1609 1591 1652 Fought on the continent including White Mountain in 1621. MP for Sussex. Privy Councillor from 1626 and Chamberlain to Henrietta Maria; opponent of Buckingham as part ofthe ‘Protestant Interest’ with George Abbot. Able speaker and moderate politician, enthusiast for personal rule and forced loan. Ship Money defaulter but fought for king 1642-1649 Royalist Episcopalian Protestant Peer England & Wales
Selden John 1584 1654 Acknowledged Scholar of English history and Judaism. Lawyer.
MP in Charles’ reign, defended Edmund Hampden in the Five Knights Case. Supported the peition of Right
Part of the Long Parliament, 1643 Westminster Assembly,
Parliament Episcopalian Protestant Gentleman
Sydny Algernon 1622 1683 Fought in Ireland against Rebels (1641-3) & then England (Cavalry Commander NMA) for parliament. Son of Earl of Leicester. Refused to participate in trial of the King.Became Repubican & political theorist, appointed to Council of State 1652, but opposed Protectorate. Opposed Restoration & fked to continent 1660, returned 1677. Whig opposition, executed for treason from Rye House Plot Parliament Protestant
Peer England & Wales
Strafford Wentworth Thomas Barn Wentworth 1628
Earl of Strafford 1640
1593 1641 MP for Yorkshire from 1615; initially supported parliament’s ‘ancient & undoubted right’ in 1621; imprisoned for non payment of forced loan 1627.
Supported king from 1628, Member of PC 1629, Deputy of Ireland 1632
Recalled to England 1639; chief adviser to king. Impeached 1640 & executed 1641
Royalist Protestant
Knight England & Wales
Strafford Wentworth Thomas Baron Wentworth 1628
Viscount Wentworth 1628
President of the North 1628
Lord Deouty of Ireland 1632-9
Earl of Strafford 1640
1593 1641 Educated at Cambrdige and Inner Temple
MP for Yorkshire from 1615, supported popular party; excluded from 1626, imprisoned for non payment of Forced Loan.
Recruited by Richard Weston 1628; unpopular though energetic period of rule in Ireland
From 1639 chief advisor to the king, advocated for Short parliament, impeached and attainded, executed 1641
Royalist Episcopalian Protestant Knight/ Peer England & Wales
Portland Weston Richard Baron Weston 1628
Earl of Portland 1633
1577 1635 MP from 1601; Diplomat for James I; Chancellor of the Exchequer 1621; Crypto Catholic, Pro Spanish; Treasurer 1628. Architect of the financial structure of the Personal Rule Royalist Crypto Catholic Knight England & Wales
Williams John Bishop of Lincoln 1621-1641
Archbishop of York 1641-46
Welsh clergyman & advisor to James I. Lord Keeper of the Seal 1621-5. Dismissed by Charles I, poursued by Laud imprisoned in 1636-40; steered middle path between Arminians & Puritans. Supported impeachments of Strafford and Laud Parliament Episcopalian Protestant Peer England & Wales

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