15th Century European kingdoms were wracked by internal division as well as international war. By the end of the century, many nations had achieved unity and some degree of internal peace. Spain, France, the Empire, England would seek to build more effective, centralised states capable of competing – with each other.
The political Map of 15th Century Europe
A movable feast it has to be said…by the end Spain was united, Novgorod part of Moscow’s new Russia of Ivan III, Bosnia and Albania submitted to the Turks; and of course the French had stolen England’s rightful inheritance of northern and South Western France.
Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain were given the title of Catholic Monarchs, and through their Grandson, Charles V, would unite Spain – and create the enormous (and unmanagable) Hapsburg Holy Roman Empire
Pope Alexander VIth (left) and Julius II, the ‘Warrior Pope’