195 The History of Europe Part VIII

15th Century European kingdoms were wracked by internal division as well as international war. By the end of the century, many nations had achieved unity and some degree of internal peace. Spain, France, the Empire, England would seek to build more effective, centralised states  capable of competing Рwith each other.

The political Map of 15th Century Europe

A movable feast it has to be said…by the end Spain was united, Novgorod part of Moscow’s new Russia of Ivan III, Bosnia and Albania submitted to the Turks; and of course the French had stolen England’s rightful inheritance of northern and South Western France.

15th Century Europe

Some Personalities

Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain were given the title of Catholic Monarchs, and through their Grandson, Charles V, would unite Spain Рand create the enormous (and unmanagable) Hapsburg Holy Roman Empire

Isabella of Castile

Ferdinand of Aragon

Pope Alexander VIth (left) and Julius II, the ‘Warrior Pope’



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